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1.1 Diabetes and Obesity Worldwide



IDF Diabetes Atlas 5th Edition, 2013; World Health Organization, March& October 2013



1.2 Diabetes in the Western Pacific Region


Figure 1.1    
Comparison of prevalence and estimated diabetes (adjusted to world population) among adults 20-79 years for the years 2011 and 2030

In 2012, International Diabetes Foundation reported that Malaysia had

  • 2,082,480 diabetes cases*3
  • 25,859 diabetes related deaths*3
  • The average diabetes-related expenditure is $513.01 (USD) per person*3


    1.3 Current Diabetes in Malaysia


    ”Malaysia is the number one country in South East Asia for having the highest number of diabetics”*15





    Figure 1.2 
    Comparison of prevalence for diabetes above 18 and 30 year old in Malaysia across the years from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS IV)

    • 2006 1.5 million people suffering from diabetes (NHMS III)*1
    • 2011 2X increase from 1.5million to 2.6 million of diabetics. All in the span of 5 years from 2006 (NHMS IV).*1,5,12

    • About 2 million people in Malaysia with high blood sugar are still undiagnosed with diabetes.*1,12
      • Worldwide, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3.4 million4   people died from consequences of high fasting blood sugar.*20
      • Many are unaware that they have diabetes until 7 or 10 years later, as there are no symptoms until complications develop.*1,13




    1.3.1 Complications of Diabetes


    [Adapted from International Diabetes Federation. 2013]4


    • 1 in 4 severe diabetic-related retina damage end up blind.*11
    • Out of 13, 973 patients with diabetic retinopathy, 3, 311 suffered retinal damage and out of this, 774 with irreversible blindness.*11

    Heart Attack

    • Diabetics are 2 to 4X more likely to have heart disease & 5X more likely to suffer a stroke*8

    Kidney Failure

    • Out of the 5, 800 new kidney patients, 58% who require dialysis or kidney transplants have diabetes.*10


  • Diabetics are 25% more likely to lose a leg.*2
  • More than one million people with diabetes lose a leg every year.*2
  • Every 30 seconds, a lower limb or a part of a lower limb is lost somewhere in the world as a consequence of diabetes.*2
  • Out of 34, 539 diabetics in Malaysia, 4 – 7% had undergone toe or leg amputations.*5

    1.4 Current Obesity in Malaysia

     “Malaysia is the fattest country in South East Asia*14

    Figure 1.3 
    Comparison of prevalence for obesity; overweight and obese individuals above 18 years old in Malaysia across the years from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS)

    • 8.5 million Malaysians are suffering from the overweight problem while approximately 50% (4.4 million) of them are obese*9
    • Obesity is an important underlying factor for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).*16
    • Obese subjects have a 2 to 3X increased risk of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance.*18
    • Diet and physical activity is the first line of prevention in the management of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes (T2DM) and obesity.*7


    Lifestyle modification vs. Drug intervention

    Diet and physical activity Metformin (drug)

    risk of diabetes by 58%*6,17

    risk of diabetes by 31%*6


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